Packing and Marking
The importance of proper packing and marking. Packing and packaging.
Packing and marking are matters of great importance in overseas trade where goods transported by sea have greater risks than in home trade when they travel by land or air transport. (weather condition and man-made problems like stealing).. Thus, packing and marking are the important assets of export distribution.
Sometimes a distinction is made between packing and packaging. Packaging means the wrapping in which a product is offered for sale in shops such as packets of biscuits, bottles of milk. The term packing refers to larger quantities packed for transport such as barrels of wine. In the case of consumer goods packing has a double function. On the one hand, it is for protection. On the other, to advertise a product and attract a customer.
Who is responsible for packing.in many large export firms special departments for export packing have been established. On the other hand, packing may be done by a firm who specialize in this difficult job. Many firms who have not got the organization and the experience to deal with all the technical details leave the packing, to packing and forwarding agents. These firms charge commission, So the general aim of packing is not only to make the goods secure during the journey, but at the same time to make the package as small and light as possible. Transport costs on land usually depend on the weight but on the sea the size of the package is also significant.
How to pack goods, types of materials and containers. Goods must be packed not to move in their cases but, on the other hand, not so close as to be damaged by pressure. The cases are marked with letters and numbers and the port of destination. The cases are contain tin or zinc, waterproof paper to prevent damage by sea-water or wet climate. Packing materials must accord with a number of considerations: climatic conditions in the foreign country, inland transport in the country of destination, Packing can be external and internal, in which the goods are sold. Packing must be appropriate to the type of goods to be carried. Thus, for instance, rice or coffee are sent in bags, Fruit may be sent in baskets, liquids in barrels, , etc.
Colour is a big factor in both attracting attention and distinguishing identity. Two makes of camera film are quickly identified by the colour of the packs, the yellow Kodak and the red and green Fuji. Finally, there is the material. Packages may be made of paper, card, wood, metal glass or various plastic materials. There are even ecological considerations. Milk is still packed in glass bottles because disposable plastic ones would have caused a massive pollution problem.
Old style of packing and loading. Bulk and break-bulk. The stowage factor.
The container system. Containerization vs. old style loading.Old Style Handling
Nowadays more and more goods in foreign trade are carried in large containers. But there are still many ports and ships which use the old kind of packing. This means goods are packed separately and not in bulk quantities.Many goods are palletized when old-style methods of loading and unloading are used. The cartons are set on pallets which are then lifted by crane or fork-lift truck. The shipping marks are important for loading because the cargo which is going to be unloaded in the last port of call has to be loaded first. The cargo for the first port of call has to be loaded last.The Container RevolutionRecently, big ports have changed completely. Docks and ships look quite different nowadays. Instead of tall thin cranes lifting pallets, a few huge heavily built transporter cranes lifting big steel boxes can be seen. Instead of hundreds of stevedores, we see no men at all; we just see huge machines. Instead of long warehouses at the dockside, we see open spaces with boxes.
The capital cost of containerizing ports is enormous. So the majority of ports still use traditional methods.
+-Handling at docks can be done mostly by machines.
-Very few stevedores are needed.
-Unloading and loading a container ship is very fast and goods can be delivered more quickly by fewer ships
-Packing can be done in suppliers’ factories. Containers needn’t be opened except for customs inspection until they reach the customers.
-Warehouses are unnecessary. Containers are waterproof and can be kept outside in the rain.
-Refrigerated containers can be connected to electrical plant at the dockside and in the ship.
The Stowage Factor
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