Composite materials - future materials. Composite materials with a metal die. Classification of composite materials, страница 5

Органоволокниты represent the composite materials consisting from polymeric connecting and Uprochniteli (filling agents) in the form of synthetic fibres. Such materials possess small mass, rather high specific strength and ruggedness, are stable at operation of alternating-sign loads and sharp changeover of temperature. For synthetic fibres of loss of strength at textile processing the small; they are insensitive to damages.

To органоволокнитах values of a coefficient of elasticity and temperature coefficients of linear spreading Uprochniteli  and connecting are close. There is a diffusion of components connecting in a filament and chemical interaction between them. The material structure is faultless. Пористось does not exceed 1-3 % (in other materials of 10-20 %). From here stability of mechanical properties органоволокнитов at a sharp temperature difference, operation of shock and cyclic loads. Impact strength high (400-700 kdzh/m?). Deficiency of these materials is rather low strength at squeezing and high creeping (especially for elastic filaments).

Органоволокниты are steady in excited environments and in a damp tropical climate; dielectric properties high, and heat conduction low. The majority органоволокнитов can is long to work at temperature 100-150 °С, and on the fundamentals полиимидного connecting and полиоксадиазольных filaments - at temperature 200-300 °С.

In the combined materials along with synthetic fibres apply mineral (glass, карбоволокна and бороволокна). Such materials possess большей strength and ruggedness.

2.7 Economic efficiency of application of composite materials

Areas of application of composite materials are not restricted. They are applied in aircraft for высоконагруженных details of planes (lagging, longerons, ribs, panels etc.) and drives (air engine and turbine vanes etc.), in the space engineering to nodes of power constructions of the devices exposed to heat, for elements of ruggedness, panels, in automotive industry for simplification of bodies, springs, cradles, panels of bodies, bumpers etc., in mining industry (the chisel instrument, details of combines etc.), in civil building (spans of bridges, elements of modular constructions of high-rise buildings etc.) and in other areas of a national economy.

Application of composite materials ensures new qualitative races in increase in power of drives, power and transport installations, reduction of mass of cars and gears.

The technique of deriving of semimanufactured materials and articles from composite materials is well enough completed.

Composite materials with a nonmetallic die, namely polymeric карбоволокниты use in sudo - and automotive industry (bodies of racing cars, the chassis, rowing screws); from them fabricate bearings, heating panels, sports stock, COMPUTER parts. Высокомодульные карбоволокниты apply to manufacture of details of aviation engineering, the instrumentation for the chemical industry, in the x-ray equipment and the friend.

Карбоволокниты with a carbon die substitute various types of graphites. They are applied to thermal protection, disks of the aviation brakes, chemically proof instrumentation.

Articles from бороволокнитов apply in the aviation and space engineering (profiles, panels, rotors and vanes of air engines, lobes of screws and трансмиссионные shafts of helicopters etc.).

Органоволокниты apply as isolation and a structural material in электрорадиопромышленности, the aviation engineering, an autostructure; from them fabricate tubes, capacities for reactants, coverages of cages of courts and another.

The list of references

1.       Lahtin J.M., Leonteva V.P.Materialovedenie: the Textbook for the higher technical institutions. - 3 изд., the reslave. And доп. - М: Machine industry, 1998.

2.       Future Materials: perspective materials for a national economy. The lane with nem./Under the editorship of A.Neumann. - Л: Chemistry, 1995.

3.       Tarnopolskij J.M., Zhigun I.G., Poles of Century And. The spatially-reinforced composite materials: the Quick reference. - М: Machine industry, 1995.

4.       The Polytechnic dictionary. Гл. ред. Obolevsky. - М: «the Soviet encyclopaedia», 1997.