Пособие по техническому переводу, страница 18





being given


having given

having been given


1)   следующие сочетания слов, после которых употребляется герундий:

(I) cannot help – (я) не могу не

it is worth                     стоит

it is worth while

it is no good              не стоит,

it is no use                бесполезно, нет смысла

2)   значения следующих предлогов, после которых характерно употребление герундия:

on account of – из-за

apart from – помимо, кроме

aside from – помимо, кроме

in addition to – кроме, вдобавок

besides – кроме

because of – из-за, вследствие, по причине

despite – несмотря на

due to – благодаря, вследствие

except (except for) – кроме, за исключением

instead of – вместо

in spite of – несмотря на

owing to      благодаря

thanks to    

through – из-за, благодаря

with the object to     с целью

with the view to   

save – кроме;

3)  следующие существительные, после которых употребителен герундий в функции определения:

ability – способность

advantage – преимущество

chance – возможность

merit – достоинство

necessity – необходимость

possibility – возможность

probability – вероятность

reason – причина, основание

way – способ

Подготовительные упражнения

I Переведите предложения с причастными оборотами.

1)  Being introduced on the railways, the automatic train control will facilitate both the work of the driver and the dispatcher.

2)  Comprising all spheres of railway operation telecommunication greatly contributes to increased reliability of railway service.

3)  Being divided into divisions, the railway handles the traffic more efficiently.

4)  Having been warned of the train collusion the dispatcher immediately sent a special train to the scene of the accident.

5)  Having encounted the difficulties in operating the industrial locomotive the engineer applied radio control.

6)  Telecommunication being increasingly introduced on the railways allows both the goods and the passenger trains to run according the schedule.

7)  Having been devised, the control devices simplified the train operation.

8)  Out-of-face surfacing being widely used on shortlines, the overall re-ballasting operations have been greatly facilitated.

9)  The information from the maintenance supervisor being tabulated at a central location, the contractors will be asked to bid on the work.

10)  With the details on safety reporting and other items worked out the spot surfacing operation takes place.

11)  The manager is aware of the information having been received from the maintenance supervisor.

II Укажите, по каким формальным показателям можно определить герундий в данных предложениях; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1)  The idea of placing a surfacing and lining crew on a segment of track with instructions “call me when you’re done” only exacerbates the problem.

2)  Making out-of-face surfacing is often associated with tie, rail or overall re-ballasting operations.

3)  The high tractive effort of electric locomotives leads to their being widely employed on mountainous routes.

4)  After having done spot surfacing the original condition is returned to the track.

5)  On being applied for raising, tamping and lining the track special machines greatly contribute to the reduction of maintenance costs.

6)  Planning track surfacing on shortline railroads gives the opportunity to the property managers and owners to know the prevailing prices for this type of work.

7)  Often, after the remaining work is pruned, it is thought of its being completed and of the resource being balanced with the requirements.

III Переведите предложения с герундиальными оборотами, обращая внимание на место оборота в предложении и форму герундия.