Transport of dangerous goods.
Dangerous goods - is a substance or article which, when transport by air can pose a significant threat to the health, safety, property and classified in accordance with established rules.
For organizing the transport of dangerous goods requires a comprehensive approach that includes both organizational issues - obtaining permits and organization of the transportation and handling, and availability of special equipment and vehicles. Often requires specialized vehicles equipped for this type of dangerous cargo. Transport of dangerous goods responsible business, handled by trained company with the required package of documents and licenses. The bigger and more serious organization that provides such services, the more kinds of goods, the category of "dangerous goods", they may carry. Rules of transportation of dangerous goods in such companies should comply with national and international standards, performance standards for the transport of dangerous goods is strictly controlled by customs, environmental and monitoring bodies on transport.
Dangerous goods are classified by degree of risk and on their physical and chemical properties. The classification includes:
- Determination of the degree of danger (OG)
- Definition of class of dangerous goods
- The definition of its UN number
- Identifying opportunities for its transportation by air, The allowable weight (the amount of dangerous goods) and the necessary special provisions
- Define the required Packing Group
- Define the required packages
Classification of dangerous goods is based on the results of tests on the criteria established by the UN Committee of Experts.
The classification of dangerous goods on their chemical and physical properties.
Class 1 "Explosives"
To dangerous goods first cargo included explosives, explosive articles, pyrotechnic substances. By Explosives are solid or liquid substance (or mixture of substances), which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature, pressure and velocity, which causes damage to the surroundings.
Class 2 "Strip"
It includes gases compressed, liquefied, in solution, refrigerated liquefied, the gas mixture, as well as articles filled with gas and aerosols. On the degree of risk during transport gases are divided into 3 categories:
1) flammable (methane, propane)
2) Non-flammable, non-toxic (nitrogen)
3) Toxic (chlorine)
Class 3, Flammable liquids "
This class includes a liquid or a mixture of liquids, and liquids containing liquid substances in solution (varnishes, paints)Which flammable vapors in a closed vessel at a temperature above 60 C °. The main hazard is the possibility of occurrence and the rapidity of fire.
Class 4: Flammable solids "
By type of Dangerous Goods 4 class are divided into 3 categories:
1) Flammable solids
2) Substances which emit flammable gases in contact with water (sodium, potassium).
Particular risk during transport are of some metals and metal powders since their burning conventional fire extinguishing agents (water, carbon dioxide) may increase the hazard.
Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides "
On the composition of Dangerous Goods Class 5 are divided into 2 categories:
1) Oxidizing substances
2) Organic substances
Oxidizing substances belonging to category one, by themselves are not necessarily combustible, but may be mainly through the provision of oxygen to cause ignition of other substances, or help them catch fire or explode. This category includes many of nitrogen fertilizers. Organic peroxides, relating to Category 2, are not heat resistant materials and may decompose during the exothermic self-accelerating reaction.
They are also able to decompose with explosive power and fast burn. Transportation is almost all organic peroxides by air is prohibited.
Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances "
By Hazard divided into 2 categories:
1) Toxic substances (gaseous, liquid, solid substances that pose a risk of poisoning, chemical burns, disease, death, animals and plants). They are dangerous if inhaled, swallowed with food. The most famous Dangerous Goods Class 6 - Herbicides and means to control pests.
2) Infectious substances are transported by special rules
Class 7 Radioactive Substances
Radioactive materials (RM) are:
- Radioactive material, fissile, including the nuclear-hazardous
- Radioactive sources of radiation
- Radioactive Materials with low specific activity
- The volume of radioactive surface contamination
If air transport of dangerous goods class 7 need to know, The transport index is the index of danger of radioactive cargo in transit.
The transport index is of 2 types:
-1 Form, characterizing the danger of radiation exposure - determines the minimum allowable distance to the crew, passengers and accompanying.
- Terms of nuclear safety (an index of strength) determines the allowable number of co-transported dangerous nuclear packaging.
Class 8: Corrosives "
This class includes all substances that can cause visible damage to the skin or any living tissue, or cause damage to other goods and aircraft structure. The most famous and popular representatives of Georgia Grade 8 - electric liquid batteries (batteries) and solutions of sodium chloride (salt fish).
Class 9 "Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
This class includes substances and products, while providing air transportation hazard that can not be attributed to other classes of dangerous goods. These include: Magnetization, anesthetics, low-toxicity materials, which may cause the flight crew and passengers, and irritation or discomfort, as well as flammable liquids. Typical of the Grade 9 are asbestos, dry ice (solid carbon dioxide), internal combustion engines, magnets, including electrical appliances.
Dangerous goods of each class in accordance with their
physico-chemical properties, species and degree of hazard in
Transportation is divided into divisions and categories and groups.
PACKAGING AND PACKING
Dangerous goods must be presented to shippers to be transported in containers and packaging, provided the standards or technical
conditions for these products and GOST 26319-84 "Dangerous goods.
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