Albert Einstein. Oxford. The Political System of Great Britain. The department of solid state physics

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Albert Einstein

(1879 - 1955)

Einstein was one of the greatest physicists of all time. He was born in 1879 in Germany. He received his education at the Polytechnical Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. After the graduation of the institute he worked at a patent office in Berne. In 1905 he published 4 important works. Each contained a great discovery in physics.

1)  Einstein created the special theory of relativity. According to this theory there is no absolute motion. Einstein considered a special case of nonaccelerated systems. Therefore his theory is called the special theory of relativity.

2)  Einstein established the mass—energy equivalence and derived his famous equation E is mc2.

3)  Einstein developed the theory of Brownian motion and derived a formula for it. This formula can be used for determining the size of molecules and atoms.

4)  Einstein also founded the photon theory of light. He explained the photoeffect in terms of the quantum theory.

For many years Einstein worked at different universities of Zuric, Prague and Berlin.

In 1916 he published the General theory of relativity. He applied the special theory of relativity to a more general case of accelerated systems.

When Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, Einstein emigrated to America where he worked at Prinston Institute.

He died in 1955. He made a great contribution to the development of modern physics.


There are about 50 universities in Great Britain. The most famous of them are Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford University is one of the largest and oldest universities in England. It was founded in the twelfth century. The University plays an administrative role, it organizes lectures, examinations, gives degrees, and so on.

Admission to Oxford is somewhat restricted. Many Oxford students receive their secondary education at private schools for the rich. Students have to pay for their education. The fees are very high.

Oxford University consists of 16 faculties including medicine, humanitarian and natural sciences and many other specialties. It consists of 25 independent colleges, including 5 colleges mainly for women students. The University trains 7.000 students in different specialties. The whole course of study lasts 4 years, 3 terms a year.

The University has laboratories and research institutes in all branches of science. It also has several museums, a botanical Garden, a theatre, a Fine Art Gallery, well-known libraries containing 2 mln. volumes.

The official head of the University is the Chancellor who is elected for life from among the most distinguished people of the country. There are also two proctors, who maintain discipline. Each college is headed by a dean.

Oxford University is known for its tutorial system. Every student has a tutor, who helps him with his studies. Oxford is also famous for its old traditions. Many outstanding scientists graduated from Oxford.

The Political System of Great Britain

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. The official head of the government is the Queen, but her powers   are limited by Parliament. Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

Until 1999 the House of Lords consisted of the Lords "Temporal"" or peers and the Lords "Spiritual" or bishops.  At the present time the House of Lords has about 700 members. Its leader is the Lord Chancellor.  The House of Lords revises legislation sent from the Commons.

 The House of Commons has 659 members. Its chairman is the Speaker. The members of the House of Commons take part in the work in Parliament. They examine and pass legislation sent by the Government. All members of the House of Commons are elected. The party, which receives the majority of seats in Parliament, comes to power and forms the Government. The parties in the minority form the Opposition.

The head of the Government is the Prime Minister. With the Queen's permission he forms the Ministry including about 60 members. From them he chooses 15 people to form the Cabinet. The Cabinet members hold the most important offices in the Government. The Opposition forms its own Cabinet, called the Shadow Cabinet.

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