22. Principles of survival.
Survival is the ability to stay alive alter a shipping casualty. The main difficulties and limiting factors facing survivors are drowning and exposure. These difficulties can be minimized by the correct type of equipment, the correct knowledge of survivors how to use this equipment and will to survive.
The first actions and attention must be concentrated on protection person from exposure: water, cold, wind, rain hot sun. In temperate and cold climates heat loss from the body must be prevented by wearing plenty of clothing.
Search and Rescue services start searching at the last known position of the ship, so do not attempt to sail away from the immediate area, keep survival craft secured and grouped together in order to provide a bigger location target. Use the portable emergency transmitter to send out distress signals. Use distress rockets, flares and smokes if there is no doubt about the presence of ship or aircraft.
Rations provided in survival craft are chosen for their ability to feed and prevent loss of body fluids and instructions for their use. Without fresh water the body will die after only a few days, so the priority is the provision of fresh wafer. The basic supply of water should be addition with rainwater and condensation where possible, but sea water and urine should never be drunk.
It is recommended to plan the emergency moves in advance, to plan what to do if an emergency will arise, where is nearest lifejacket, lifeboat or craft.
Everybody should know how his survival equipment works, because the time of the emergency is not the time to learn.
•Before abandoning ship wear as many layers of clothing as possible to offset the effects of cold. Wear a waterproof suit if it’s available.
•Put on a lifejacket as soon as possible.
•When abandoning ship, try to board the lifeboat or raft dry.
•If immersion is necessary try to enter the water slowly.
•Swimming increases body heat loss, swim only to a safe place nearby. To reduce your ody heat loss, float in the water with your legs together, elbows to your side and arms across the chest.
In a survival situation it is very important to have the will to survive.
drown – тонуть
exposure – незащищенность
temperate climate – умеренный климат
offset - противостоять
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