Duties of the WO, when the vessel is lying at anchor.
In such circumstances the OOW should: -determine and plot the ship’s position on the appropriate chart as soon as practicable and at sufficiently frequent intervals check by taking bearings to fixed navigational marks or identifiable shore objects; -ensure that an efficient lookout is maintained; -ensure that an inspection of the vessel is made periodically; -observe weather, tidal and sea condition; -ensure that the state of readiness of the main engines and oilier machinery is in accordance with the master’s instructions; -ensure that the vessel exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that appropriate sound, signals are made at all time. Keep constantly listening watch on appropriate VHF radio channel.
Different types of rope.
Ropes can be divided into 3 main types: natural fibre rope which is made from the fibre of different plants, synthetic fibre rope which is made from materials such as nylon and wire rope which is made from strands of steel wire. Natural rope can be divided into 5 basic types: manila, sisal, hemp, cotton and coir ropes. They are usually strong, flexible and elastic from good side. And from bad side they are rot easily when they are wet and usually very expensive. Synthetic ropes can be divided into 3 main types: teryline, nylon and polypropylene. Synthetic ropes have many advantages. They are strong and elastic and also resistant to the action of the water. And the main disadvantage is melting by means of the action of the sunlight. Teryline has the highest melting point(260’) and polypropylene has the lowest melting point. And wire rope is made of steel. It is usually galvanized to stop it from rusting. They are very strong and elastic but not as flexible as other type of ropes. Large wire ropes are very heavy. They are used as mooring lines and for cargo handling.
Very often m/v have some troubles while proceeding in port waters or in the open sea for example there can be problems with there propeller or engine or more serious such as grounding, collisions etc. in the most part of such accidents salvage tugs are ordered by the master or perhaps by the agent. Salvage vessels are large sea-goings tugs, specially designed and outfitted for performing salvage operation in relatively remote areas. The tugs can be easily distinguished by length 40-47m. (more than port tugs), very powerful engines(5000-10000 h/p). Additionally salvage tugs carry on assortment of portable salvage equipment, pumps, compressors, diving gear, patching materials, beach gear, implements and cargo handling gear, life-saving equipments, life boys, life-inflatable rafts, life boats, life jackets etc. always the special trained crew is on this tug. Their main purpose is to save people and after that to the vessel herself if it is possible. There are different methods of sunken vessels salvage: ?
Towing within port limits.
When a master of the vessel wants to enter the port, he has to know whether towing is compulsory or not. If the towing is compulsory the master should order a tug by himself or if it is possible to do so through the agent. When towing is performed, vessels must hoist the shape and the fog signal (one long blast followed by there short blasts) should be made. While towing vessels maintain a constant communication with each other on VHF radio. The length of the tow hawser depends on the draught of the towed vessel. Port authorities prohibit any unassisted maneuvering within the harbour limits. Mooring of vessels especially the large ones is very often effected with the tug assistance. Tugs can also assist in taking a vessel into dry dock if her bottom needs clearing or various repairs need to made to her underwater body. In case of any accident in the port limits, tugs render necessary assistances and tow the casualty to the nearest ship-yard for repairs. Normally 2 tugs are used while shifting in ports. Towing in ports is also monitored and coordinated by the port stations to give vessels a wide way. In case of the master is very sophisticated and experienced person, he may have Palotage Exceptional Certificate. In this case he doesn’t require a pilot and can avoid the ordering of tugs and moor the berth by himself.
Methods of towing.
Pulling the towed vessel by means of tow hawser with the towed ? astern is one of the quickest and convenient method of towing. This method can by performed in harbour limits on the height seas and event in adverse weather conditions. Another method is the proceeding together with the towed vessel which is made fast alongside. This method is to be effected when the sea is calm, because it is very difficult to keep towed vessel under control when she started pitching and rolling and doesn’t answer the helm in stormy weather. It may lead to collision or hull damage. Next method uses pusher tug. A pusher tug is usually a port tug. The tug takes the distress vessel and starts to push her forward. Such tugs may assist in taking vessel into dry dock and some other movement within inner waters. Modern technologies such as ETS are applied in towing process too. This technology is used for permition to towing operation from the board of the tug or salvage vessel. The length of the tow rope depends on the weather conditions and length and draft of the towed vessel. The towing and towed vessels maintain a constant communication to coordinate their movements.
Method of mooring.
Mooring is process of making fast the ship to the pear by means of mooring ropes. There are 2 methods of mooring for various types of vessel. The first is moor alongside to the berth. This method is used by a good number of ships such as bulkers, Ro-Ro with boar ramp, reefers and passenger liners. The advantages of this method are more safety securing and handling ship alongside. The second method is mooring head to or stern to. This method is used by ferries and allows very quickly handling. Nowadays modern ferries use both methods simultaneously. But there are some type of vessels which need no mooring berth at all such as Lashs and tankers. The tankers moor to the super buoys but if it necessary tankers can moor to the berth. But there is one special method where one ship moors to another for example bunkering. The care is required, because it is very serious situation.
Procedure of mooring.
In most part of the world vessels intending to load or discharge are made fast to pears. That’s why we as future navigators must know this procedure very well. So the mooring is process of making fast the ship to the pear by means of mooring ropes. Ship’s approach to berth should be effected at slow speed with both anchors ready to let go in case of necessity. OOW and master must determine the appropriate distance from the berth in accordance with the weather conditions, ship’s speed, her tonnage, engine power and its reversing efficiency. Procedure begins wit the master’s order:” stand by for mooring”. During the mooring the second mate command’s on the bow and the third mate on the stern. If the vessel is very bigthe chief mate is responsible for the safety of the middle part of ship. The procedure of mooring may be complicated by under manning especially on large vessels. The third and second mate reports the master about readiness. Mooring ropes are given ashore by means of heaving line or special boat which is called “mooring launch”. When the ship comes on appropriate distance the master order:”give the bow or stern spring and ? Springs give ashore the first to run off the ship’s headway. In procedure of securing the mooring on the ship’s bitts and shore’s bollards they must slack away or hold on them. Strengthening of offshore wind force may necessitate doubling the mooring ropes given ashore.
Чтобы распечатать файл, скачайте его (в формате Word).
Ссылка на скачивание - внизу страницы.