Marine environment pollution
With the substantial growth of vessel traffic in the world ocean the pollution of the sea has greatly increased resulting in damage to life in it and along its shores. The open sea is being polluted these days mainly from ships, while the coastal waters are being contaminated either from ships, or from offshore oil drilling rigs, or from port cities and sea-side settlements. What are the main potential sources of marine pollution? These are oil, oil products, noxious liquid substances carried in bulk, vessel generated and industrial waters, sewage, domestic rubbish, etc.
When we speak about of oil pollution, we should keep in mind that the principal cause of such pollution is the discharge of oily mixtures from ships (e.g. tank washings from tankers) or oil spillage as a result of accident at sea.
Arrangements to protect the external environment include bunker overflow protection and monitoring equipment ensures that the discharge bilge water does not contain more than 15 ppm of oil. Oil sludge is incinerated along with all other ship-generated waste with the exception of cans and glass. Galley waste is packaged in plastic sacks in a special press for easy handling in the incinerator. Supplementary fuel in the incinerator is diesel oil. Also passed to the incinerator is sludge from the sewage treatment plant.
Waste materials, such as oil drums, lengths of wire and other heavy objects should be disposed of ashore and not dumped into the sea. These objects may be removed at considerable distances by tidal action and may eventually arrive on fishing grounds, causing much damage to nets and loss of time to fishermen. Many ropes, cables and fishing nets are now made from synthetic materials which may float and not to rot. Such materials, when discharged, should not be dumped at sea, as they may foul the propellers of other vessels. Plastic sheeting, bags and containers can choke the cooling water intakes of vessels of all sizes.
If such waste material is lost overboard, every reasonable attempt should be made to recover it.
to contaminate – загрязнять
noxious liquid substances – ядовитое жидкое вещество
sewage – сточные воды
domestic rubbish – бытовой мусор
tank washings – промывные воды из танков
arrangement – устройство; установка
bunker overflow protection – защита от перелива топлива
discharge bilge water – сливаемые льяльные воды
oil sludge – нефтяной шлам
to dump – сбрасывать
sheeting – пленка
to choke - засорять, закупоривать
intake – впускное отверстие
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