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The USSR Achievements in CAD/CAM Systems
The 27th CPSU Congress outlined the main trends of further economic and social development in the period of 1986-1990 stressing the urgent need of introducing automated systems, primarily CAD, CAM, CIM and FMS, to every field of management.
At present in the USSR a lot of application program packages (APPs) are utilized. Among them one may find, for example, APPs for modelling and optimizing gas turbine engines. These APPs realize engine component mathematical models in a CAD system. Besides, APPs with a dialogue monitor for analysing temperature, strengths and strains in cylinder-piston Diesel engines are used. This monitor provides a user interactive dialogue mode by means of the package PARK.
GRAPHOR and FAP-KF are applied in CAD systems for computer graphics APPs. GRANIT and DISFORP serve for solving problems of planning national economy whereas MAVR does for computer-aided design and dispatching control.
There exists also MRAMOR workstation, i. e. a multifunctional editorial board service workstation. It is successfully used for automatization of editor activity in entry, editing and preparing to print different publications — newspapers, books, journals, magazines, etc., i. e. to do all that without subsequent typesetting of various printing plates.
Using MRAMOR an editor is able to read a text at the screen "window", to debug it, to reconstruct a typesetting for any given formats, etc.
MRAMOR uses a microcomputer with floppy disks and hard disks and a high-speed laser printer for setting up types and spacing.
MRAMOR has been developed under the guidance of academician A. Yershov in the specialized laboratory at the Computing Centre of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In our country the most widespread systems of today are expert systems. Their task is to accumulate experience of those working in poorly formalized fields such as medicine, biology, history, etc. Expert systems possess a special explanation system, whose purpose is to explain a human being the reasons for recommendations of specialists, and as a result, such systems raise the confidence degree of specialists to an "electronic adviser".
PIKOM is a computational equipment system with image dialogue facilities for interactive modelling of robotics systems and flexible automated ones. PIKOM enables to realize a wide range of functional possibilities. They are' divided into the following basic groups:
— image information sensing and analysing in visual and speech forms;
— interactive, graphics;
— interactive image modelling.
PIKOM makes use of microcomputer "Electronica-6ОМ" representing a system with a single processor, 64 Kbyte main memory, 1 Mbyte floppy-disk external memory, and an external interface on the basis of CAMAC system.
PIKOM capabilities may be essentially extended due to the application of powerful microcomputers and highly developed peripheral technology.
In the future PIKOM systems for flexible automated manufacturings modelling will be based not only on powerful microcomputers, but on their networks. Hence, they will feature a different system design hardware/software technology with custom VLSI circuits/ special architecture synthesis, and developed peripherals of the kind of powerful graphics workstations.
Thus, in the Soviet Union creation and development of new ways for automatization and intensification of modern production mean deep and all-round transformation of economy, science and technology.
CAD in Industry Abroad
ASIC Design Software. Software for the design of application specific integtated circuits (ASIC) has been introduced in ihe UK by Mikron Microelectronics.
According to Mikron, the package can do the full automatic layout of 600 gate arrays (венти.льная матрица) with 100 per cent utilization in 15 minutes on a VAX II/750 computer. It takes 20 minutes to do a 1500 gate array on the same computer but 'onfy achieves 99.8 per cent utilization. The Mikron package has been developed to aid the design and testing of semicustom (полузаказной) integrated circuits. Acco'rding to Mikron it features schematic entry, netlist extraction, logic simulation, placement, routing, timing extraction, PG tape generation, fault simulation and test program generation. The package is available for several hardware configurations including DEC's MicroVax and VAX systems, the IBM PC AT and Tektronix systems. The price varies according to the configuration.
Software to Suit Models-arid Moulds. 3D modelling and mould making software for micros has been developed by Lewill Systems. It is called CHEOPS. It works by creating a model from sections which are defined using a 2D CAD system and then assembled in 3D. The final result can be viewed from any angle, and volumes can be calculated. A cutter path (путь режущего инструмента) is automatically generated to produce the finished mould. Further programming is required to achieve a fine finishing cut.
CHEOPS can be integrated with the 2D drafting system to parametricaily vary the dimensions of critical sections (критическое сечение). According to Lewill Systems a turnkey
approximately £35,000 and would include ' CHEOPS software, a 2 1/2D NC programming facility, 2D drafting input to CHEOPS and an appropriate microcomputer.
AI Systems from Tektronix. Tektronix has introduced two
artificial intelligence systems: the 4405 and the 4406. It has also announced a price reduction of its 4404 AI system The 4406 is powered by Motorola 68020 microprocessor assisted by a 68881 floating point coprocessor.2 It includes a 19 in, 60 Hz display with a resolution of 1280x1024. It has 2 Mbytes of RAM, 32 Kbytes of virtual memory address space and a 90 Mbyte hard disk.
The 4405 is also powered by the Motorola 68020 with the 68881 floating point coprocessor, however it has a 13 in 60 Hz screen with a 640x640 viewable display acting as a
window onto the 1024x1024 addressable bit map (отображение). It has 1 Mbyte of RAM, 8 Kbytes of virtual memory
address space and a 45 Mbyte hard disk
According to Tektronix, these systems are aimed at artifi-
cial intelligence applications and include the Smalltalk-80
programming environment, a Unix-like operating system and
а С compiler as standard features.
Colour Plotter from Versatec. A new plotter has been
announced by Versatec Electronics. It was demonstrated for
the first time at DEC'85 in Birmingham, UK.
The 24 in colour plotter uses Versatec's multipass colour plotting technique. The media is marked to end of plot on ... the first pass to ensure proper registration, the media is then rewound (перематывать) to the plot starting position. Four subsequent passes overlay the four colours: black, cyan (бирюзовый), magenta (красный), and yellow to produce the full colour output.
The plotter will plot on both paper and film. It is aimed at applications such as CAE, CAD, mapping (отображение) and general computer graphics. It has a resolution of 200 dots/in.
have 1 Mbyte of RAM as standard, but can be expanded
to 7,5 Mbytes.
There are four bit-mapped displays on offer: two of medium resolution (512x400 pixels) on a 12 in screen, and two of higher resolution (1024x768 pixels), with 19 in-colour screen and a 17 in monochrome screen.
The programming languages and operating systems available with the Series 300 include BASIC 4.0, PASCAL 3.1 and HP-UX (a Unix derivative4). The Series 300 will run most of Hewlett-Packard's Series 200 applications software. Finite Element Analysis on Micro. A 3D structural ana-lysis tool for IBM PC is being offered by. Control Data. It is called the Cybernet Express Structures program.
According to Control Data, it is the first in a range of micro-based engineering workstation programs to be released The whole range will be marketed under the Cybernet Express label (маркировочный знак) and will include piping (пересылка данных), power systems analysis, and project management systems.
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